CWAP – Group Key Handshake

Group Key Handshake is a two way handshake that happens when an access point needs to deliver a new GTK to all client stations. GTK is used to encrypt the broadcast and multicast traffic. An important thing to remember here is that this is a separate process as opposed to PTK generation, if it was… Continue Reading CWAP – Group Key Handshake

CWAP – 802.11 Frames

So with 802.11 there are different types of frames they they all have sub-types. Knowing these frames and where to find them is helpful when capturing data. It is not fun trying to get them in your head when studying for the test, however in my opinion it is easy when you are actually looking… Continue Reading CWAP – 802.11 Frames

CWAP 403 – PHY (PLCP)

802.11 is Layer 2 and Layer 1. After frames come to Layer 1 from PPDU pre 802.11-2016 standard shows there are two interfaces PLCP and PMD as show below. NOTE: Per 802.11-2016 there is no longer PMD and PLCP, please read this article R.I.P. PMD by Robert Haviland explaining it really well. Since my post… Continue Reading CWAP 403 – PHY (PLCP)

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